According to Chris Knight, the first humans were few; then the population "exploded .... Population expansion on such a scale is inconsistent with female tolerance of infanticide, harassment, or the heavy costs to mothers of male philandering and double standards. If unusually large numbers of unusually large-brained offspring were being successfully raised to maturity, the quality of childcare must have been exceptional. We know what the optimal solution would have been. There can be no doubt that mothers would have done best by ... taking advantage of every available childcare resource."
A final option for accessing child care is utilizing programs funded or subsidized by states and the federal government. Unfortunately, while it may seem as though this must be a viable option for families who do not want to lose a co-breadwinner’s earnings or for those who can’t afford private care, the United States still has a long way to go on this front.
Learning Stories  are documents that are used by caregivers and educators in childcare settings. They use a storytelling format instead of a traditional ‘observation’ report to document the different ways that young children learn, and capture the moment in greater detail and provide parents with a greater insight into the events that occur in their child’s time in childcare.
In Denmark day-cares accept children ranging from 6 months old to 3 years old. 91.2% of 1-2 year old children are enrolled in different types of day-care institutions. Most of these are managed by a municipality and mostly government funded. The different types of institutions ranges from separate day-care institutions (Vuggestue), kindergartens with a day-care department (Integrerede institutioner) and in-home day-care (Dagpleje).
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In monetary- and production-based societies, informal childcare is seen in families who do not have enough funds to finance placing their children in a more expensive child care facility. A study done by Roberta Iversen and Annie Armstrong explains that due to long and irregular working hours of working parents, low- socioeconomic families are more likely to utilize informal childcare. Those low income families are also more apt to work longer hours on an irregular and inflexible schedule, which ultimately makes using a childcare facility, that has regular business hours, unlikely.
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" We just wanted to reach out and tell you how impressed we were with Treasures during our visit on February 19. We opened the door to this warm, calm, inviting facility and immediately felt any apprehensions about leaving "our baby" melt away. The entry area was roomy, organized, and clean (so nice when we had all our bulky ski gear on), the sign in process was efficient, and most importantly, the lovely caregivers were calm, confident, warm, and reassuring. Back near the child care rooms, our 3 year old, transitioned from us to a care giver and headed into the room without any crying or struggle. This was a pleasant surprise (ok, a shock!) to us, given we had never been to Treasures, and since the last time we had recently taken her to a babysitting facility at a NH ski resort, she came unraveled- in a big way!! We really attribute this smooth drop off to your staff and the general calm, welcoming feel of the facility. We loved the window area we could view her from, and we left quickly for the slopes, feeling she was in great hands and was lucky to be at such a wonderful place for the day. It was a delight as we would ski down the mountain, passing Treasures, knowing she was in there, being well taken care of. Thank you for giving us that peace of mind."
The story becomes even bleaker for mothers who are living below the poverty line. As Table 1 shows, 26 percent of working mothers in poverty pay for child care out of pocket, and those expenses eat up nearly half—42.6 percent—of their monthly wages. It is vital that these women have work support, since they are more likely to be single parents and since seeking paid employment is required to have access to certain governmental benefits. Employment is also an important pathway into the middle class, but when child care is as expensive as it is, it places a disproportionate burden on the mothers who can least afford it.
The children caregivers in many communities are deemed responsible to care for those younger than them and it is expected that they will do so. Adults are viewed as occasional supervisors of the caregiving while the caregivers are responsible for responding to the needs of each child. These young caregivers take pride in their responsibility and learn each child’s individual likes, dislikes, and habits.
In his 2013 State of the Union address, President Barack Obama made a historic pledge to provide universal, high-quality pre-K education to our nation’s children. He chose to make this one of his administration’s priorities with good reason: Early childhood education has myriad benefits, including better, more equitable long-term outcomes for children of divergent economic backgrounds. Moreover, investments in these programs help cultivate a future workforce, secure long-term economic competitiveness, and develop our nation’s future leaders. Universal high-quality pre-K and child care would also throw a much-needed raft to families across America that are struggling to stay afloat while footing costly child care bills, missing work to provide care, or sending their children—our nation’s future innovators and workforce—to low-quality care centers.
If you are looking for child care, the Child Care Resource and Referral Agency (CCRR) in your county is a great place to start. To provide this service, CCRR agencies collect and maintain up-to-date information about all types of legal child care programs in their areas. CCRR counselors can provide you with information about various types of programs, costs, financial assistance and guidelines for selecting child care, but the final choice is always your responsibility as a parent. If you want help finding child care or have questions about child care, contact your local CCRR. They will ask you about the kind of care you are looking for, the ages of your children, the hours of care you need and other specifics such as any special needs your child might have. Based on that information, they will be able to give you a list of providers that most closely meet your needs.
The Illinois Department of Human Services partners with child care providers throughout Illinois to provide working families of low income with access to affordable, quality child care. IDHS also supports services for families looking for care including free referrals to child care providers and consumer education information. Click on any of the links below for more information.
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Spain provides paid maternity leave of 16 weeks with 30-50% of mothers returning to work (most full-time) after this, thus babies 4 months of age tend to be placed in daycare centers. Adult-infant ratios are about 1:7-8 first year and 1:16-18 second year. Public preschool education is provided for most children aged 3–5 years in "Infantil" schools which also provide primary school education.
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Inspections are conducted before a child day care program is licensed or registered and on an ongoing basis once the program is in operation. Inspection results are available on the OCFS web site through this Search for Child Care page. If a parent or child care provider has questions or concerns about the results of an inspection, they can contact the licensing staff or the regional office that oversees the program.
The service is known as day care or childcare in the United Kingdom, North America, and Australia and as crèche in Ireland and New Zealand. According to Oxford Living Dictionaries, child care in two words can in addition have the broader meaning of the care of a child by anyone, including the parents, but US dictionaries do not record that spelling or meaning. In English-speaking and other conservative countries, the vast majority of childcare is still performed by the parents, in-house nannies or through informal arrangements with relatives, neighbors or friends, but most children are in daycare centers for most of the day in Nordic Countries, for example. Child care in the child's own home is traditionally provided by a nanny or au pair, or by extended family members including grandparents, aunts and uncles. Child care is provided in nurseries or crèches or by a nanny or family child care provider caring for children in their own homes. It can also take on a more formal structure, with education, child development, discipline and even preschool education falling into the fold of services.
More contemporary proposals for government advancement of day care in the United States have experienced a checkered path, for example, in 1971, the Comprehensive Child Development Act was passed by Congress, but was vetoed by Richard Nixon. It "would have created nationally funded child care centers providing early childhood services and after-school care, as well as nutrition, counseling, and even medical and dental care. The centers would charge parents on a sliding scale." Various proposals have been considered, but to date, none leading to legislation that would establish a national policy supporting day care in the United States.